The projects working to build infrastructure and expand the capabilities of Ethereum are commonly referred to as scaling solutions.
The main ones that are ready for use today (until layer 1 solution – Ethereum 2.0 will be implemented) are layer 2 solutions. They are built “on top of” the Ethereum main-chain, but do not require changes to the base level protocol — rather, they exist simply as smart contracts on Ethereum that interact with off-chain software.
Here you can learn more about these solutions and start using them.
Top 5 ways to scale your Ethereum blockchain application – general article outlining the relative trade-offs of existing solutions for scaling solutions on the Ethereum
Overview of Layer 2 approaches: Plasma, State Channels, Side Chains, Roll Ups – dive relatively deep into the technical details of each approach and their benefits and disadvantages
Making Sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 Scaling Solutions – deep dive into off-chain or layer 2 solutions – state channels, Plasma, and Truebit
The State of Layer-2 Protocol Development – a progress report on all things of layer-2
Layer 2 in Ethereum 2.0 – by Vitalik Buterin
Awesome Layer 2 – curated list of all layer 2 projects
Sharding – overview
Scaling Ethereum: Sharding – how will it actually work?
Crossing shards – intro to sharding and cross-shard trust
Sidechains vs Plasma vs Sharding – how exactly is sharding different from sidechains or Plasma?
State and Payment Channels
State Channels for Babies – dive into what state channels are and how they can make blockchains more practical for everyone
LearnChannels – learning site dedicated to state channels
Unified State Channel Specification for Ethereum – initiative to unify Ethereum’s state channels projects around a single standard
The state of state channels: 2018 edition – overview, projects and further readings
Payment Channels – brief summary
Ethereum Payment Channel – Ethereum payment channel in 50 lines of code
µRaiden Documentation – guides and samples for µRaiden sender/receiver use cases
RaidenInfoBot – collection of resources about Raiden Network
Phonon Network – scalable, off-chain, private payment system transacting directly with any network participants
Learn Plasma – learn all about Plasma
Plasma Roundup: From MVP to Mainnet – an overview highlighting in progress implementations
Understanding Plasma – from Plasma basics to exploring some additional features and mechanisms that build on top of Plasma Cash
Plasma World Map – the hitchhiker’s guide to the plasma – large picture of numerous studies and a good cheat sheet for doing own research
Plasma Leap – Plasma chain to increase the capacity of Ethereum and widen the scope of possible DApps
Plasma Chamber – DApps development framework that guarantees security, scalability, and usability utilizing Plasma technology
Matic Network – adapted implementation of the Plasma with PoS based sidechains
Difference Between SideChains and State Channels – an explanation and a complete comparison of the two scaling methods
POA Network – open Ethereum sidechain with Proof of Authority consensus
POA Bridge – POA <-> Ethereum bridge for self transfers of POA native token to POA20 (ERC20 representation)
xDai Chain – Ethereum-based blockchain that uses USD-stable xDai (a representation of DAI token) as the native coin
Loom Network – a network of DPoS sidechains for games and DApps
Parity bridge – bridge between any two Ethereum-based networks
SKALE – Ethereum sidechain test network
Trustlines Network – minimal viable Proof-of-Stake (mPoS) Ethereum sidechain based on Parity’s Aura consensus algorithm
Fuel – sidechain that uses call data and vanilla on-chain Merkleization to solve mass data availability without main chain state accesses
ZK-STARKs (see more in ‘Privacy’ section)
ZK-Rollups – increases scalability through mass transfer processing rolled into a single transaction
The State of Optimistic Rollup – technical overview of Ethereum’s emergent Optimistic Rollup ecosystem
Lazy Ledger – scalable general-purpose data availability layer, for decentralized apps and trust-minimized sidechains (including optimistic rollups)
MetaTransactions to scale Ethereum – Gas Stations Network could allow transactions from addresses that hold no ETH
Abridged – allows you to easily add Web 3 components into an existing app including counterfactual account contracts, state channels, and meta-transactions
PISA – real scalability of crypto, by alleviating the assumption, 99% of transactions can remain local amongst the parties instead of the global network
BLS rollup – the optimal SNARK-less on-chain scaling solution
Commit-Chains – what are commit-chains?