Scaling Solutions

The projects working to build infrastructure and expand the capabilities of Ethereum are commonly referred to as scaling solutions.

The main ones that are ready for use today (until layer 1 solution – sharding in Ethereum 2.0 will be implemented) are layer 2 solutions.

Layer 2 solutions are built “on top of” the Ethereum main-chain, but do not require changes to the base level protocol — rather, they exist simply as smart contracts on Ethereum that interact with off-chain software.

Here you can learn more about these solutions and start using them.


Ethereum Layer 2 scaling techniquesbriefly explained
Evaluating Ethereum L2 Scaling Solutionszk rollup, optimistic rollup, sidechains, payment channels, plasma, validium: which one is right for you?
Rollup-centric Ethereum roadmap – all-in on rollups until Ethereum 2.0
Ethereum Scaling Projectsto scale Reddit or your DApp
Layer 2 in Ethereum 2.0  – by Vitalik Buterin

Layer 1


Sharding  – overview
Scaling Ethereum: Sharding  – how will it actually work?
Crossing shards  – intro to sharding and cross-shard trust
Sidechains vs Plasma vs Sharding  – how exactly is sharding different from sidechains or Plasma?

Layer 2


Top DApps are turning to Rollupsand differences between ZK and Optimistic rollups
Optimistic vs ZK rollups discussion
The Road to L2 Interoperabilitymoving funds between layer 2 systems


ZK-rollupsincreases scalability through mass transfer processing rolled into a single transaction

ZK Sync  – trustless scaling and privacy solution for Ethereum based on zk-rollup
StarkExzk-rollup transactions
Loopringzk-rollup exchange and payment protocol
Azteczk-rollup + privacy
Hermez zk-rollup focused on scaling payments and token transfers
Railszk-rollup-based gas-free payment solution

Optimistic Rollups

The State of Optimistic Rolluptechnical overview of Ethereum’s emergent Optimistic Rollup ecosystem

Optimismlaunches optimistic rollup testnet
Fuel  – exchange layer using optimistic rollup
Arbitrumlaunches optimistic rollup testnet
Zkoprulayer 2 scaling solution for private transactions using zk-SNARK and optimistic rollup
Celerhybrid rollup


Difference Between SideChains and State Channels  – an explanation and a complete comparison of the two scaling methods

xDai  Ethereum-based blockchain that uses USD-stable xDai (a representation of DAI token) as the native coin
SKALE  – Ethereum sidechain
POA Network  – open Ethereum sidechain with Proof of Authority consensus
Loom Network  – a network of DPoS sidechains for games and DApps
Trustlines Network  – minimal viable Proof-of-Stake (mPoS) Ethereum sidechain based on Parity’s Aura consensus algorithm


Learn Plasma  – learn all about Plasma

Matic Network  – adapted implementation of the Plasma with PoS based sidechains
OMG NetworkPlasma-based transfers
Leap DAO  – Plasma chain to increase the capacity of Ethereum and widen the scope of possible DApps

State and Payment Channels

LearnChannels  – learning site dedicated to state channels
Do we still need state channels?they are still relevant in a world of rollups

Projectsusing state and payment channels
Phonon Network  – scalable, off-chain, private payment system transacting directly with any network participants

Meta Transactions

MetaTransactions to scale Ethereum  – Gas Stations Network could allow transactions from addresses that hold no ETH
The State of Meta Transactionsin 2020


ZK-STARKs  – summary, projects and further readings
A Framework for Efficient STARKs  – 5 posts serie explaining the theory behind STARKs and StarkWare’s implementation of it

See more here


Lazy Ledger  – scalable general-purpose data availability layer, for decentralized apps and trust-minimized sidechains (including optimistic rollups)
Abridged  – allows you to easily add Web 3 components into an existing app including counterfactual account contracts, state channels, and meta-transactions
PISA  – real scalability of crypto, by alleviating the assumption, 99% of transactions can remain local amongst the parties instead of the global network
BLS rollup  – the optimal SNARK-less on-chain scaling solution
Commit-Chainswhat are commit-chains?