Scaling Solutions

The projects working to build infrastructure and expand the capabilities of Ethereum are commonly referred to as scaling solutions.

The main ones that are ready for use today (until layer 1 solution – Ethereum 2.0 will be implemented) are layer 2 solutions. They are built “on top of” the Ethereum main-chain, but do not require changes to the base level protocol — rather, they exist simply as smart contracts on Ethereum that interact with off-chain software.

Here you can learn more about these solutions and start using them.

Top 5 ways to scale your Ethereum blockchain application  – general article outlining the relative trade-offs of existing solutions for scaling solutions on the Ethereum
Overview of Layer 2 approaches: Plasma, State Channels, Side Chains, Roll Ups  – dive relatively deep into the technical details of each approach and their benefits and disadvantages
Making Sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 Scaling Solutions  – deep dive into off-chain or layer 2 solutions – state channels, Plasma, and Truebit
The State of Layer-2 Protocol Development  – a progress report on all things of layer-2
Layer 2 in Ethereum 2.0  – by Vitalik Buterin
Awesome Layer 2  – curated list of all layer 2 projects


Sharding  – overview
Scaling Ethereum: Sharding  – how will it actually work?
Crossing shards  – intro to sharding and cross-shard trust
Sidechains vs Plasma vs Sharding  – how exactly is sharding different from sidechains or Plasma?

State and Payment Channels

State Channels for Babies  – dive into what state channels are and how they can make blockchains more practical for everyone
LearnChannels  – learning site dedicated to state channels
Unified State Channel Specification for Ethereum  – initiative to unify Ethereum’s state channels projects around a single standard
The state of state channels: 2018 edition  – overview, projects and further readings
Payment Channels  – brief summary
Ethereum Payment Channel  – Ethereum payment channel in 50 lines of code
µRaiden Documentation  – guides and samples for µRaiden sender/receiver use cases
RaidenInfoBot  – collection of resources about Raiden Network
Phonon Network  – scalable, off-chain, private payment system transacting directly with any network participants


Learn Plasma  – learn all about Plasma
Plasma Roundup: From MVP to Mainnet  – an overview highlighting in progress implementations
Understanding Plasma  – from Plasma basics to exploring some additional features and mechanisms that build on top of Plasma Cash
Plasma World Map – the hitchhiker’s guide to the plasma  – large picture of numerous studies and a good cheat sheet for doing own research
Plasma Leap  – Plasma chain to increase the capacity of Ethereum and widen the scope of possible DApps
Plasma Coding Tutorial  – build your own Plasma MVP implementation in JavaScript & Solidity
Plasma Chamber  – DApps development framework that guarantees security, scalability, and usability utilizing Plasma technology
Matic Network  – adapted implementation of the Plasma with PoS based sidechains


Difference Between SideChains and State Channels  – an explanation and a complete comparison of the two scaling methods
POA Network  – open Ethereum sidechain with Proof of Authority consensus
POA Bridge  – POA <-> Ethereum bridge for self transfers of POA native token to POA20 (ERC20 representation)
xDai Chain  – Ethereum-based blockchain that uses USD-stable xDai (a representation of DAI token) as the native coin
Loom Network  – a network of DPoS sidechains for games and DApps
Parity bridge  – bridge between any two Ethereum-based networks
SKALE  – Ethereum sidechain test network
Trustlines Network  – minimal viable Proof-of-Stake (mPoS) Ethereum sidechain based on Parity’s Aura consensus algorithm
Fuel  – sidechain that uses call data and vanilla on-chain Merkleization to solve mass data availability without main chain state accesses

ZK-STARKs (see more in ‘Privacy‘ section)

ZK-STARKs  – summary, projects and further readings
A Framework for Efficient STARKs  – 5 posts serie explaining the theory behind STARKs and StarkWare’s implementation of it


ZK-Rollupsincreases scalability through mass transfer processing rolled into a single transaction
The State of Optimistic Rolluptechnical overview of Ethereum’s emergent Optimistic Rollup ecosystem
Lazy Ledger  – scalable general-purpose data availability layer, for decentralized apps and trust-minimized sidechains (including optimistic rollups)
MetaTransactions to scale Ethereum  – Gas Stations Network could allow transactions from addresses that hold no ETH
Abridged  – allows you to easily add Web 3 components into an existing app including counterfactual account contracts, state channels, and meta-transactions
PISA  – real scalability of crypto, by alleviating the assumption, 99% of transactions can remain local amongst the parties instead of the global network
BLS rollup  – the optimal SNARK-less on-chain scaling solution
Commit-Chainswhat are commit-chains?